How to Cite Media Sources

How to cite a TV show


A television show is cited like this:

  • <"Title of episode">. <Title of program>. By <creator>. Perf. <performers>. <Title of Series (e.g.—Masterpiece Theatre)>. <Name of Network>. <Call letters of station>. <Original broadcast date>.

So, an old Star Trek episode might be cited like this:

  • "The City on the Edge of Forever." Star Trek. By Gene Roddenberry. Perf. William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, DeForrest Kelley. NBC. WBCN, Boston. 6 Apr. 1967.

Please note that the creator is not the show's writer, nor is it necessarily the director or the producer, although sometimes the creator serves in one or more of those roles.

How to cite a movie


To cite a movie, "begin with the title, underlined. For a film, cite the director and the lead actors or narrator ("Perf." or "Narr."), followed by the name of the distributor and the year of the film's release. For a videotape or DVD, add "Videocassette" or "DVD" before the name of the distributor" (Hacker, 399).

So, a DVD of the movie Casablanca would be cited like this:

  • Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Paul Henreid, and Claude Rains. 1942. DVD. Warner Home Video, 1999.

Source: Hacker, Diana. A Writer's Reference. 6th ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007.

How to cite an interview


Interviews need to be cited, even if you conducted the interview yourself, or even if you were the person being interviewed.

To cite the interview, if you conducted it:

  • <Name of Person Being Interviewed>. <The words "Personal interview."> <Date interview was conducted>.
  • Example: Bush, Paul. Personal interview. 12 Feb. 2007.

To cite the interview, if someone else conducted it, but it's unpublished:

  • <Name of Person Being Interviewed>. <"Interviewed by" followed by name of interviewer>. <Date interview was conducted>.
  • Example: Bush, Paul. Interviewed by Tim Smith. 12 Feb 2007.

To cite a broadcast interview:

  • <Name of Person Being Interviewed>. <The word "Interview">. <Name of Program (underlined)>. <Network. Station call letters, location.> <Date interview was conducted>.
  • Example: Leonardo DiCaprio. Interview. The View. ABC. WCVB, Boston. 15 Jan. 2008.